This paper estimates the impact of the first nationwide e-commerce expansion program on rural households. To do so, we combine a randomized control trial with new survey and administrative microdata. In contrast to existing case studies, we find little evidence for income gains to rural producers and workers. Instead, the gains are driven by a reduction in cost of living for a minority of rural households that tend to be younger, richer, and in more remote markets. These effects are mainly due to overcoming logistical barriers to e-commerce rather than additional investments to adapt e-commerce to the rural population.aeri.20190382To read the full report from the American Economic Association, please click here.