United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement



Office of the United States Trade Representative


The Government of the United States of America, the Government of the United Mexican States, and the Government of Canada (collectively “the Parties”), resolving to: STRENGTHEN ANEW the longstanding friendship between them and their peoples, and the strong economic cooperation that has developed through trade and investment; REPLACE the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement with a 21st Century, high standard new agreement to support mutually beneficial trade leading to freer, fairer markets, and to robust economic growth in the region; PRESERVE AND EXPAND regional trade and production by further incentivizing the production and sourcing of goods and materials in the region; ENHANCE AND PROMOTE the competitiveness of regional exports and firms in global markets, and conditions of fair competition in the region; SUPPORT the growth and development of small and medium-sized enterprises by enhancing their ability to participate in and benefit from the opportunities created by this Agreement, recognizing their contributions to economic growth, employment, community development, and innovation; ESTABLISH a clear, transparent, and predictable legal and commercial framework for business planning, that supports further expansion of trade and investment; FACILITATE trade between the Parties by promoting efficient and transparent customs procedures that reduce costs and ensure predictability for importers and exporters, and encourage the expand of cooperation in the area of trade facilitation and enforcement; RECOGNIZE their inherent right to regulate and resolve to preserve the flexibility of the Parties to set legislative and regulatory priorities, in a manner consistent with this Agreement, and protect legitimate public welfare objectives, such as public health, safety, the environment, the conservation of living or non-living exhaustible natural resources, the integrity and stability of the financial system and public morals, in accordance with the rights and obligations provided in this Agreement; FACILITATE trade in goods and services between the Parties by preventing, identifying, and eliminating unnecessary technical barriers to trade, enhancing transparency, and promoting good regulatory practices; PROTECT human, animal, or plant life or health in the territories of the Parties and advance science-based decision making while facilitating trade between them; ELIMINATE obstacles to international trade which are more trade-restrictive than necessary; FOSTER creativity and innovation, and promote trade in goods and services that are the subject of intellectual property rights, in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare PROMOTE high levels of environmental protection, including through effective enforcement by each Party of its environmental laws, as well as through enhanced environmental cooperation, and further the aims of sustainable development, including through mutually supportive trade and environmental policies and practices; PROMOTE the protection and enforcement of labor rights, the improvement of working conditions, the strengthening of cooperation and the Parties’ capacity on labor issues; SUPPORT the implementation of government-wide practices to promote regulatory quality through greater transparency, objective analysis, accountability, and predictability, recognizing that these practices can facilitate international trade, investment, and economic growth, while contributing to each Party’s ability to achieve its public policy objectives; PROMOTE transparency, good governance and the rule of law, and eliminate bribery and corruption in trade and investment; RECOGNIZE the important work that their relevant authorities are doing to strengthen macroeconomic cooperation; and ESTABLISH an Agreement to address future trade and investment challenges and opportunities, and contribute to advancing their respective priorities over time. To Read The Full Agreement, please use the links below:
1.         Initial Provisions and General Definitions
2.         National Treatment and Market Access for Goods
3.         Agriculture
4.         Rules of Origin, with Product Specific Rules
5.         Origin Procedures
6.         Textiles and Apparel
7.         Customs and Trade Facilitation
8.         Recognition of the Mexican State’s Direct, Inalienable, and Imprescriptible Ownership of Hydrocarbons
9.         Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
10.       Trade Remedies
11.       Technical Barriers to Trade
12.       Sectoral Annexes
13.       Government Procurement
14.       Investment
15.       Cross-Border Trade in Services
16.       Temporary Entry
17.       Financial Services 
18.       Telecommunications
19.       Digital Trade
20.       Intellectual Property
21.       Competition Policy
22.       State-Owned Enterprises
23.       Labor
24.       Environment
25.       Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
26.       Competitiveness
27.       Anticorruption
28.       Good Regulatory Practices
29.       Publication and Administration
30.       Administrative and Institutional Provisions
31.       Dispute Settlement
32.       Exceptions and General Provisions
33.       Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange Rate Matters
34.       Final Provisions